This research paper examines the role and the contribution of Open Badges in open education systems, it reviews through case studies how Open Badges have been used so far and how could they be used to improve the quality of studies, especially in non-formal and informal education contexts. Key takeaways: There are various terms used for Open Badges under different educational contexts (table 1 – page 4) Through case studies, Open Badges prove to be a way for recording performance and progress, and to strengthen connections between community of users. Open Badges show promise improving engagement of studies To bring improvement of quality, a common and homogenized term and system of criteria and procedures is required. The research paper calls for development of a prototype for a common, open system of digital credentials and offers a set of criteria for it.
The authors examine the potential and status of blockchain technology from the perspective of self-sovereign learning. They describe and investigate projects on decentralized identity management as the basis of a learner-centered agency, on a national and European level, based on different types blockchains; the digital credentials as the “building blocks” of life-long learning, and its current lack of mobility and interoperability; and they describe a resistance to the adoption of decentralized open models, notably on the side of policy makers, higher education, and commercial entities.